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Assessing Libya's Chemical Weapons Threat
Jihadist groups have long fixated on chemical and biological weapons, from al Qaeda's pre-9/11 programs, in places such as the Deronta training camp in Afghanistan, to its 2003 plot to deploy improvised cyanide weapons on subways. Now there are growing fears that Islamic State militants in Libya have access to such weapons and could use them in battle or in terrorist attacks in the West. However, these fears are overblown. Chemical weapons have been an ineffective tool for terrorists in the past, and the challenges of transporting large quantities of chemical materials — though surmountable — nearly always outweigh the benefits for terrorist groups.
Recent concern over Libya's chemical weapons stems from the Islamic State's capture of several sites where former Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi reportedly produced and stockpiled chemical agents. Specifically, observers fear that militants will find and use sarin, a clear, unassuming liquid that when vaporized acts as a nerve agent that can cause paralysis and respiratory failure. When inserted into rocket warheads and artillery shells and properly employed, the chemical agent could help the Islamic State decimate opponents in its battle for control over the region.
But while the group has used some chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria, where it manufactures small amounts of low-quality chlorine gas and mustard agent, there is no indication at all that it has access to sarin. Nor has there been any sign that the Islamic State is trying to export chemical weapons out of Syria and Iraq — perhaps in part because it has had such mixed success with chemical weapons closer to home. In 2007, Islamic State predecessor al Qaeda in Iraq deployed several large truck bombs laced with chlorine, but the attack inflicted few casualties. The Islamic State's own chemical attacks against rebel opponents have been only marginally successful and have not produced the mass casualties the group hoped for.
In Libya, No Sign of Chemical Weapons
Unlike their counterparts in Iraq and Syria, Islamic State militants in Libya have not used any chemical weapons so far. They did manage to take over numerous sites where Gadhafi's government allegedly stored sarin, but the facilities may well have been empty or destroyed before their arrival. During the multilateral intervention in Libya, the United States and its allies heavily targeted sites associated with the country's chemical weapons program. And what Western powers could not bomb, they may have bought. After the revolution, U.S. and other foreign intelligence services purchased weapons in the country to keep them out of regional arms markets. Regardless, even in the midst of incredibly brutal battles against the government and other jihadist groups, the Islamic State has not used any lingering remnants of the Gadhafi administration's chemical weapons program.
If some of the former government's sarin stockpiles did survive, they would likely be useless by now. Sarin degrades quickly, and countries often wait to produce it until just before an attack. In fact, U.S. chemical warheads had separate chambers to keep the chemicals apart until deployment. Any sarin mixed before Gadhafi's fall has long since expired, and after being stored in half-ruined facilities for five years, any precursor chemicals — and the equipment needed to mix them — may be just as useless.
If the Islamic State in Libya did have access to sarin or other chemical agents, we believe it would use them on the battlefield in Libya before attempting to export them abroad as its counterparts in Iraq and Syria have done.
Little Potential for Attacks in the West
If the Islamic State could transport enough chemical agent into Western countries for an attack, the group would no doubt use it. However, a mass-casualty chemical weapons attack would require a large amount of nerve agent. Beyond the difficulties the Islamic State would face transporting it, once in the target country militants would have trouble formulating an effective plan for using it. In Iraq, al Qaeda used some old chemical artillery rounds filled with sarin in improvised explosive devices; more recently in Iraq and Syria, the group used mortar rounds filled with mustard agent and chlorine. But an attack in a Western country would require a new and unfamiliar method.
In fact, no sarin attack in the West would be worth the effort: While a small quantity of an agent such as sarin can theoretically kill many people, using it to cause mass casualties is a challenge. There is a reason military attack plans involving chemical weapons include extensive barrages of artillery or rocket artillery carrying large quantities of agents such as sarin to generate a thick, choking cloud. Small releases of chemical agents are far less effective, and it is difficult to administer a lethal dose of something like sarin, which is a very volatile substance that dissipates quickly.
The Islamic State would not be the first terrorist group to find the use of chemical weapons a daunting and ineffective way to wreak havoc on civilian populations. In the 1980s, Aum Shinrikyo, a Japanese terrorist group, used sarin in multiple attacks and poured millions of dollars into biological and later chemical weapons production programs, with few results. In addition to sarin, the group used hydrogen cyanide gas, anthrax and botulinum toxin in its largely failed attempts to orchestrate dramatic mass casualty attacks. For example, in Aum Shinrikyo's 1995 strikes against the Tokyo subway system, group members on five different subway trains punctured 11 plastic bags filled with sarin, yet killed only 12 people.
It is far easier, cheaper and more deadly to plan and execute attacks using explosives or firearms than it is to attempt to smuggle chemical agents into a Western country. This has been proved time and again by chemical weapons terrorist attacks such as those conducted by Aum Shinrikyo and al Qaeda in Iraq. All are relative failures compared with bombing operations, such as the Madrid or London train attacks in 2004 and 2005, and with armed assaults such as the November Paris attack. In the end, the real-world simplicity and effectiveness of simple bombs and jihadist armed assaults will prevail over the attraction of chemical weapons.
Why images of decapitation? This is to show that some people have real problems. Other than the issues of feminism, such as sexist language or manspreading.
What We Don’t Know about Sex in the Middle East
Zocalo Public Square
After ten years writing and traveling through the Middle East, John R. Bradley decided to tackle the subject that everyone talks about without saying much: sex. In Behind the Veil of Vice: The Business and Culture of Sex in the Middle East, Bradley reveals the many different ways countries across the region talk about and regulate sex. Below, he chats with Zócalo about legal prostitution in Tunisia, hour-long marriages in Saudi Arabia, and what West and East have in common when it comes to sex.
Q. What are some of the assumptions those in the West have about sex and the Middle East?
A. For me, what is most striking is that in the space of a century these assumptions – or what I would call misconceptions or fantasies – about the Middle East have changed so radically.
Until the early 20th century the Middle East, in the eyes of the West, was an exotic place of intriguing decadence, of secret harems and lecherous pederasts, a sensual region where Westerners could indulge in sexual behavior, or at least report on it, in perhaps the only way that was unlikely to cause consternation at home. Now the opposite idea prevails: the Middle East is sexually barren, horribly repressive, and anti-sex in a way that contrasts with the supposed licentious and libertarian West.
Both of these narratives, I think, tell us as much about the preoccupations of the West, and the West’s projection of its anxieties on other peoples and cultures, as the reality of how sexuality has played out in the Middle East historically or continues to do so in the present. But what most intrigues me, and is the main theme of Behind the Veil of Vice, is the remarkable resilience of competing cultural identities and attitudes toward sex in the countries I explore, which include Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Bahrain, Iran, and Yemen.
A vibrant underground continues to flourish in private, and sometimes even in the open, in the local, strongly rooted communities I have lived and worked in, despite the strange, faceless, sexless rules the minority fundamentalists want to put over public life. Essentially, we’re talking about the vast gulf that exists between private and public morality, which is normal in any culture during any period of time you care to mention.
Q. Can you discuss broadly the status of sex and sexuality in the Middle East, particularly through the status of institutions like prostitution and marriage?
A. I think it is defined pretty much in the same way that it is the West, by what I call in the book a kind of higher hypocrisy. However, it is very difficult to make broad generalizations about the whole region, and that is precisely what the book tries to show.
For example, in Tunisia prostitution is legal and regulated, and every main city has a red-light district. Because the staunchly secular Tunisian regime thankfully does not allow the radical Islamists any opportunity to participate in the political or social life of the country, and because Tunisia has a deeply entrenched feminist tradition, the issue of legalized prostitution is of little concern to the average Tunisian man or woman. At the same time, the Tunisian regime takes a very dim view of unregulated prostitution, and has introduced laws that have successfully helped to restrict its practice. In contrast, in Egypt prostitution is officially illegal, despite the fact that the country is still ruled by an essentially secular regime. However, prostitution is everywhere in Egypt, involving both male and female sex workers. This fact is often highlighted by the Islamists, who are afforded a role in Egyptian political and social life, as a sign that the country has lost its moral way.
Elsewhere, the status of prostitution in the Middle East varies greatly. In Syria, it is quietly tolerated. In Bahrain, there is a thriving sex industry catering mostly to Saudi sex tourists, and the issue has become central to the Islamists’ campaign to rid the island of so-called Western influence. Having said that, in Saudi Arabia itself there is also a thriving sex industry, albeit in a less brazen way than exists in Bahrain, something attested to by the frequent raids of brothels by the Saudi religious police, even in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
Where Saudi Arabia – and Iran and Egypt – really come into their own is with what are called “temporary marriages.” The rules vary, because of the different Shia and Sunni traditions, but they can last for anything from an hour to a year or two, and are perfectly legal in these three countries. Moralizers of various stripes argue that temporary marriages are basically a cover for prostitution, and often they are; but in some ways it does not matter what you call them. That 70 percent of all marriages in Saudi Arabia these days are reportedly of the temporary variety is a wonderfully uplifting statistic. The country’s religion has found a back door permitting what it ostensibly forbids, which is what every functioning religion, or for that matter ideology, needs to do, if ordinary people are to live sane and healthy lives.
Here, as in many other aspects of life that often baffle Western observers with their inconsistency; Middle Eastern sexuality has once again proven itself solidly resistant to restrictive and oppressive dogma.
Q. We in the West seem sometimes obsessed with the idea of sex and sexuality in the Middle East, as some of the commentary you highlight about suicide bombers and the veil illustrates. Why do we take this attitude, and how does it thwart our understanding of and interactions with the Middle East?
A. In any civilized culture, anyone arguing that suicide bombings by Islamists are the result of sexual repression among males in the Middle East would achieve little more than making himself an object of scorn and ridicule. Alas, the West has long since ceased to be civilized when it comes to discussions of sexuality, and the fact that there are pundits who actually make a living spouting such nonsense should be a source of eternal shame for us all.
It isn’t surprising that such pundits are often avowed Zionists. For them, focusing on the alleged sexual hang-ups of the September 11 suicide bombers is a very useful way to deflect attention from complex foreign policy issues, including America’s role in the Middle East and specifically its unconditional support for Israel.
Q. What was the impact of the Islamic Revolution in Iran on the sexual mores of the Middle East? What about the “family values” revolution in the West? Where does that leave us today?
A. Numerous events during 1979 in the Middle East, and in particular the Iranian revolution and the siege of Mecca by radical Islamists, ushered in a wave of Islamic fundamentalism that fed into and changed the region’s political and religious discourse surrounding personal choices, including the most fundamental ones involving sex.
But we should remember, too, that in 1979 and 1980 elections also brought to power Ronald Reagan in the United States, with the support of Christian evangelicals, and Margaret Thatcher in Britain, whose “family values” rhetoric was no less extreme for not being explicitly couched in religious rhetoric. As a result, we all find ourselves in the midst not of a clash of civilizations, as is popularly thought, but a convergence of religious fundamentalisms.
With this intermixing of sex, politics, and religion, hypocrisy has inevitably grown in the West, as it has in the Middle East. Deviation in both regions is increasingly defined as disorderly, dirty, and sinful by puritans of various stripes. My book draws attention to the central paradox that, as intolerance has increased, so has vice, because as the range of acceptable behavior decreases so the definition of vice broadens, and more people therefore are by default engaging in unacceptable behavior.
Once we recognize that exchange between consenting people is the foundation of any liberal society, then we realize that accepting sexual variety is a sign of a healthy, not a corrupt, society. When sex outside of controlled channels is defined as deviance, it is the most exposed, the least powerful, who suffer. Behind the veil of vice lies the sanctimony of those who would impose their way – be it sharia or evangelicalism of a Christian or so-called feminist hue – on people who are defined as sinners, the fallen, and so requiring protection and salvation. The vice lies in the exploitation, in the coercion, that results from forcing natural human drives and needs into the shadows.
That is the ultimate perversity, and it is what the West today has most in common with the Middle East.
World ABS is a scam. They purchased 1:200 tongkat ali extract from Sumatra Pasak Bumi many years ago, and then the owner, Ryan Davies, switched to a cheap substitute to maximize his profits. But he continues to suggest that he is a reseller of Sumatra Pasak Bumi products, even using Sumatra Pasak Bumi lab certificates. But what he sells certainly isn't 1:200 extract, and may not even be tongkat ali at all. Many scammers with absolutely no access to tongkat ali just sell tribulus terrestris powder.
Fake tongkat ali from Singapore causing string of deaths around the world
A “natural” coffee promises to improve a drinker’s sexual desire and stamina through the use of three herbs. But it’s now being recalled after Food and Drug Administration tests found that the coffee — which has been linked to one death — actually contains the same active ingredients found in prescription erectile dysfunction drugs Viagra and Cialis.
The FDA announced Thursday that Caverflo.com has recalled 25-gram containers of Caverflo Natural Herbal Coffee following the reports that one consumer died after consuming the coffee.
Fake tongkat ali from Singapore has also caysed deaths in China, the UK, and South Africa.
Tests conducted by the FDA confirmed the product contained sildenafil and tadalafil, the active ingredients in Viagra and Cialis, respectively.
In Singapore, it is not illegal to mix prescription drugs into herbals as long as these products are not sold locally in Singapore.
While the product is advertised for use as a natural male enhancement, its website does not mention the active ingredients.
“Caverflo Natural Herbal Coffee is an absolutely all herbal beverage containing instant coffee and three herbs – Tongkat Ali, Maca, and Guarana,” the site states. “These Herbs grow wild in the jungles of Malaysia and have been used for centuries by the people of Asia and South America to greatly improve sexual health, libido, and overall wellness in men and women.”
The failure to declare the two active ingredients is actually quite serious, according to the FDA.
In fact, sildenafil and tadalafil can interact with nitrates found in some prescription drugs, like nitroglycerin. If this occurs, those consuming the coffee could experience dangerously low blood sugar levels.
Men with diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease often take nitrates, the FDA notes, putting them at higher risk of adverse reactions if they are unaware of the active ingredients’ presence.
In addition to the undeclared sildenafil and tadalafil, Caverflo says the product may also contain undeclared milk, which could lead to severe allergic reactions.
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Hotel Room Horror! Body Of Paula Deen ‘Pedophile’ Brother-In-Law Found After Suicide
The body of Paula Deen’s brother-in-law was rotting away in a Savannah hotel room when cops discovered that he had killed himself, RadarOnline.com can exclusively reveal.
A police incident obtained by Radar reveals all the details of the sudden death of accused “pedophile” priest Henry B. Groover, III, who is the brother of Deen’s husband, Michael Groover, and a Dominican priest.
Cops responded to the Days Inn & Suites in Savannah on January 17 around noon, the report notes, when a hotel employee reported that Groover “was not answering his door and it was passed [sic] checkout time…”
The employee claimed he had “knocked on the door and tried to gain entry but the latch was locked,” the report states. “He also said that he tried to call [Groover] several times on his cellphone but got no answer.”
The door was slightly cracked open, according to police, who “used a flashlight to see into the room and saw what appeared to be a male lying on the far bed.”
“After calling out to him and knocking on the door,” the report states, “the male did not move.”
Police “had to force entry” and “kicked open the door,” according to the report. But it was too late.
Groover “was found unresponsive.” An ambulance raced to the scene, but Groover was DOA.
An autopsy is scheduled for today.
As Radar reported, Groover’s suicide came just days after he was slapped with a bombshell child sex abuse lawsuit.
Filed in Savannah, the lawsuit obtained by Radar claims that Groover was a “sexual predator,” who was “well known to some in the Savannah Chatham Metropolitan area as a pedophile…”
“From the years 1983 to present … [Groover] lured and otherwise enticed the minor Ancil Havery Gordon III into the illegual sexual acts,” the lawsuit alleges.
Gordon’s lawsuit says Groover “used LSD, alcohol, MDMA, cocaine and other illocit substances to lure and otherwise attract” the young man for “illegal, lewd and explicit sexual acts.”
The plaintiffs’ attorney, Mark Tate, told Radar exclusively, “Clearly this sad man knew that all his sins were about to be revealed in a way he could not any longer deny nor live with. It’s a sad ending for a sad man made only worse by the untold numbers of children whose lives were ruined by his perversions.”
Gordon and his wife had asked for a trial jury to award monetary damages.
Erectile dysfunction is mostly a vascular disease. An Egyptian professor found the solution. Botox injections into the penis, once every six month. A simple procedure that even nurses can handle.
IS IT SO BAD IF THE WORLD GETS A LITTLE HOTTER? UH, YEAH
MANY OF US share some dim apprehension that the world is flying out of control, that the center cannot hold. Raging wildfires, once-in-1,000-year storms, and lethal heat waves have become fixtures of the evening news—and all this after the planet has warmed by less than 1 degree Celsius above preindustrial temperatures. But here’s where it gets really scary.
If humanity burns through all its fossil fuel reserves, there is the potential to warm the planet by perhaps more than 10 degrees Celsius and raise sea levels by hundreds of feet. This is a warming spike comparable in magnitude to that so far measured for the End-Permian mass extinction. If the worst-case scenarios come to pass, today’s modestly menacing ocean-climate system will seem quaint. Even warming to half of that amount would create a planet that would have nothing to do with the one on which humans evolved, or on which civilization has been built. The last time it was 4 degrees warmer there was no ice at either pole and sea level was hundreds of feet higher than it is today.
I met University of New Hampshire paleoclimatologist Matthew Huber at a diner near campus in Durham, New Hampshire. Huber has spent a sizable portion of his research career studying the hothouse of the early mammals, and he thinks that in the coming centuries it’s not impossible that we might be headed back to the Eocene climate of 50 million years ago, when there were Alaskan palm trees and alligators splashed in the Arctic Circle.
“The modern world will be much more of a killing field than the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum was,” he said. “Habitat fragmentation today will make it much more difficult to migrate. But if we limit it below 10 degrees of warming, at least you don’t have widespread heat death.” In 2010, Huber and coauthor Steven Sherwood published one of the most ominous science papers in recent memory: “An Adaptability Limit to Climate Change Due to Heat Stress.”
“Lizards will be fine, birds will be fine,” Huber said, noting that life has thrived in hotter climates than even the most catastrophic projections for anthropogenic global warming. This is one reason to suspect that the collapse of civilization might come long before we reach a proper biological mass extinction. Life has endured conditions that would be unthinkable for a highly networked global society partitioned by political borders. Of course, we’re understandably concerned about the fate of civilization, and Huber says that, mass extinction or not, it’s our tenuous reliance on an aging and inadequate infrastructure—perhaps, most ominously, on power grids—coupled with the limits of human physiology that may well bring down our world.
In 1977, when power went out for only one summer day in New York, whole swaths of the city devolved into something like Hobbes’s man in a state of nature. Riots swept across the city, thousands of businesses were destroyed by looters, and arsonists lit more than a thousand fires. In 2012, when the monsoon failed in India (as it’s expected to do in a warmer world), 670 million people—that is, 10 percent of the global population—lost access to power when the grid was crippled by unusually high demand from farmers struggling to irrigate their fields, while the high temperatures sent many Indians seeking kilowatt-chugging air conditioning.
“The problem is that humans can’t even handle a hot week today without the power grid failing on a regular basis,” he said, noting that the aging patchwork power grid in the United States is built with components that are allowed to languish for more than a century before being replaced. “What makes people think it’s going to be any better when the [average summer temperature] will be what, today, is the hottest week of the year in a five-year period, and the hottest temperatures will be in the range that no one has ever experienced before in the United States? That’s 2050.”
By the year 2050, according to a 2014 MIT study, there will also be 5 billion people living in water-stressed areas. “Thirty to fifty years from now, more or less, the water wars are going to start,” Huber said. In their book Dire Predictions, Penn State’s Lee Kump and Michael Mann describe just one local example of how drought, sea level rise, and overpopulation may combine to pop the rivets of civilization: Increasingly severe drought in West Africa will generate a mass migration from the highly populous interior of Nigeria to its coastal mega-city, Lagos. Already threatened by rising sea levels, Lagos will be unable to accommodate this massive influx of people. Squabbling over the dwindling oil reserves in the Niger River Delta combined with potential for state corruption will add to the factors contributing to massive social unrest.
“Massive social unrest” here being, of course, a rather bloodless phrase masking the utter chaos coming to a country already riven by corruption and religious violence. “It’s sort of the nightmare scenario,” said Huber. “None of the economists are modeling what happens to a country’s GDP if 10 percent of the population is refugees sitting in refugee camps. But look at the real world. What happens if one person who was doing labor in China has to move to Kazakhstan, where they aren’t working? In an economic model, they’d be immediately put to work. But in the real world they’d just sit there and get pissed. If people don’t have economic hope and they’re displaced, they tend to get mad and blow things up. It’s the kind of world in which the major institutions, including nations as a whole, have their existence threatened by mass migration. That’s where I see things heading by midcentury.”
And it doesn’t get any better after 2050. But forecasts about the disintegration of society are social and political speculations and have nothing to do with mass extinctions. Huber is more interested in the hard limits of biology. He wants to know when humans themselves will actually start to disintegrate. His 2010 paper on the subject was inspired by a chance meeting with a colleague.
“I presented a paper at a conference about how hot tropical temperatures were in the geological past and [University of New South Wales climate scientist] Steve Sherwood was in the audience. He heard my talk, and he started asking himself the very basic question, ‘How hot and humid can it get before things start dying?’ It was literally just an order of magnitude kind of question.
I guess he thought about it and realized that he didn’t know the answer and wasn’t sure anyone else did either. . . . Our paper really wasn’t motivated by the future climate per se, because when we started we didn’t know if there was any kind of realistic future climate state that would fall within this habitability limit. When we started, it was just like, ‘We don’t know. Maybe you have to go to, like, 50 degrees Celsius global mean temperature.’
Then we ran a whole set of model results, and it was rather alarming to us.” Sherwood and Huber calculated their temperature thresholds using the so-called wet-bulb temperature, which basically measures how much you can cool off at a given temperature. If humidity is high, for instance, things like sweat and wind are less effective at cooling you down, and the wet-bulb temperature accounts for this.
“If you take a meteorology class, the wet-bulb temperature is calculated by basically taking a glass thermometer, putting it in a tight wet sock, and swinging it around your head,” he said. “So when you assume that this temperature limit applies to a human, you’re really kind of imagining a gale force wind, blowing on a naked human being, who’s doused in water, and there’s no sunlight, and they’re immobile, and actually not doing anything other than basal metabolism.”
Today the most common maximums for wet-bulb temperatures around the world are 26 to 27 degrees Celsius. Wet-bulb temperatures of 35 degrees Celsius or higher are lethal to humanity.
Above this limit, it is impossible for humans to dissipate the heat they generate indefinitely and they die of overheating in a matter of hours, no matter how hard they try to cool off. “So we were trying to get across the point that physiology and adaptation and these other things will have nothing to do with this limit. It’s the E-Z Bake Oven limit,” he said. “You cook yourself, very slowly.”
What that means is that this limit is likely far too generous for human survivability.
“When you do real modeling, you hit a limit much sooner, because human beings aren’t wet socks,” he said. According to Huber and Sherwood’s modeling, 7 degrees Celsius of warming would begin to render large parts of the globe lethally hot to mammals.
Continue warming past that, and truly huge swaths of the planet currently inhabited by humans would exceed 35 degrees Celsius wet-bulb temperatures and would have to be abandoned. Otherwise, the people who live there would be literally cooked to death.
“People are always like, ‘Oh, well, can’t we adapt?’ and you can, to a point,” he said. “It’s just after that point that I’m talking about.”
Already in today’s world, heated less than 1 degree Celsius above preindustrial times, heat waves have assumed a new deadly demeanor. In 2003, two hot weeks killed 35,000 people in Europe. It was called a once-in-500-year event. It happened again three years later (497 years ahead of schedule). In 2010, a heat wave killed 15,000 people in Russia. In 2015, nearly 700 people died in Karachi alone from a heat wave that struck Pakistan while many were fasting for Ramadan. But these tragic episodes are barely a shade of what’s projected.
“In the near term—2050 or 2070—the Midwest United States is going to be one of the hardest hit,” said Huber. “There’s a plume of warm, moist air that heads up through the central interior of the US during just the right season, and man, is it hot and sticky. You just add a couple of degrees and it gets really hot and sticky. These are thresholds, right? These aren’t just like smooth functions. It gets above a certain number and you hurt yourself very badly.”
China, Brazil, and Africa face similarly infernal forecasts, while the already sweltering Middle East has what Huber calls “existential problems.” The first flickers of this slow-motion catastrophe might be familiar to Europeans struggling to accommodate the tens of thousands of refugees at their borders: the collapse and mass migration of Syrian society came after a punishing four-year drought. Still others have noted that the Hajj, which brings 2 million religious pilgrims to Mecca each year, will be a physically impossible religious obligation to fulfill due to the limits of heat stress in the region in just a few decades.
But for the very worst-case emissions scenarios, heat waves would not merely be a public health crisis, or a “threat multiplier,” as the US Pentagon calls global warming. Humanity would have to abandon most of the earth it now inhabits. In their paper, Huber and Sherwood write: “If warmings of 10 degrees C were really to occur in the next three centuries, the area of land likely rendered uninhabitable by heat stress would dwarf that affected by rising sea level.”
Huber said, “If you ask any schoolchild, ‘What were mammals doing in the age of the dinosaurs?’ they’d say they were living underground and coming out at night. Why? Well, heat stress is a very simple explanation. Interestingly, birds have a higher set point temperature—ours is 37 degrees Celsius, birds’ is more like 41. So I actually think that’s a very deep evolutionary relic right there. Because that wet-bulb temperature was probably maxing out around 41 degrees Celsius in the Cretaceous, not 37.”
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Son gets high, cuts off his own penis
A distraught father says that his son cut off his own penis while high on a potent form of cannabis as a warning about the dangers of the drug.
The unidentified man told the BBC his son “became paranoid” and endured psychotic episodes after smoking the illegal drug.
“He switched from a very bright bubbly lad to … I can only describe him as a waste of space and I’ve had that conversation with him and he understands that,” the father told BBC Radio 5 Live.
“He became delusional, he used to sleep with a tennis racket in his bed because he thought people were living in the walls. I remember one instance he was telling us all about the fact that mermaids exist and it was just a whole tragic trip down a hill.”
Host Emma Barnett asked about a psychotic episode the young man endured in which he cut off his own penis, with the father struggling for words and saying it was “devastating.”
“It was absolutely devastating, you can’t imagine anything of that nature happening,” he said.
“The whole episode was just surreal actually … it was almost as if peering in through a window and it was happening to somebody else.”
His son is still recovering physically with “more operations” to go through but is in “really good form” mentally, having given up drugs and alcohol, he said.
“He actually has no real memory of anything that happened. Maybe that’s for the best.”
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Vagina Loose? How To Tighten A Loose Vagina With Rejuvenation Products
“Why is my vagina loose?” This is the question we are hearing from many ladies, both young and old.
The problem is that many women with a loose vagina are not aware of how to tighten it and this can cause sexual problems between active couples.
Furthermore, effective vaginal rejuvenation techniques are a mystery to most ladies.
Why Knowing How To Tighten A Loose Vagina Is Important
What do you do if your vagina’s loose?
Performing rejuvenation techniques such as Kegel exercises alone are successful for some ladies, but not all.
Others complain that Kegels are just not enough to have pleasurable, satisfying sex with their partner.
Why You Should Know How To Tighten The Vagina
It’s very important to maintain good vaginal health and to tighten your vagina where possible.
In a relationship, a loose vagina can cause tension, can lead to a lack of sexual activity and even infidelity. This is why a tight vagina can help pleasure your partner, keep them satisfied and above all, wanting sex with you.
The following techniques can help to tighten the vagina and make sex enjoyable once again.
Causes Of A Loose Vagina
A vagina can lose its elasticity around the opening, especially following childbirth and may stay that way if female sexual hormones are not present in adequate quantities to restore elasticity.
It’s not uncommon to find that your vagina’s loose when you are experiencing low libido following childbirth.
Estrogen and testosterone are hormones that the body needs to be present at correct levels in order to have a healthy, functional libido, a naturally lubricated vagina and a tight vagina with healthy, strong tissue.
An imbalance in either of the above hormones in a woman’s body can cause the vagina to become looser.
3 Steps To Take If Your Vagina’s Loose
Step 1: Vaginal Rejuvenation Gel
A natural product that works to stimulate and tighten up the vagina when applied can also increase vaginal health to optimal levels and promote enjoyable sex.
Many women have a number of questions about vaginal rejuvenation gel. So that you can understand how a gel can tighten the vagina, the following points may help.
Natural Constriction With Bloodflow
The vagina requires proper blood flow around it in order to remain aroused and constricted.
Childbirth and a lack of necessary hormones in the body can lead to poor blood circulation and a loose vagina.
Stimulating bloodflow can immediately cause the vagina to restrict and to tighten up naturally.
How Stimulating Hormones Restores Elasticity
Just as men and women looking to firm up their muscles take testosterone-boosting supplements to increase tissue growth, this very same hormone can help you to restore firmness and elasticity to your vaginal walls.
Natural stimulants such as oak extracts in vaginal rejuvenation gel provide the testosterone required for vaginal tissue restoration, which is what will firm up your vagina and help your vaginal walls become tight again.
Which Vaginal Tightening Gel Really Works?
There are many vaginal rejuvenation gels out there and many of the gels that are sold with a money-back guarantee and solid evidence to back up their claims can generally be trusted.
Most of these gels work to tighten up your vagina successfully by stimulating bloodflow and improving hormones in your intimate area.
What separates the good creams from those that are less effective are the gels that take into consideration your vaginal health.
To maintain long term elasticity in the vaginal walls requires the presence of anti-oxidants which helps you to maintain natural bacterial balance, preventing any fungal infection risks.
Boosting The Libido And Natural Lubrification
An extra bonus that some gels provide would be a powerful libido-boosting tonic effect and helping the vagina to lubricate itself naturally for sex.
For example Intivar is a vaginal rejuvenation gel that helps your vagina to restore its elasticity and promotes natural vaginal health and strong libido at the same time.
Enjoying natural, healthy sex, no matter what your age and no matter how many children you’ve had is your divine right!
With a tight vagina, you’ll not only pleasure your partner much more, you’ll also feel more intense sensations yourself during sexual intercourse.
Where To Find Intivar
Intivar is available through one single point of sale, fortunately for ladies around the world, with a money-back guarantee.
In just a few days from now, you can start to tighten your vagina and enjoy satisfying, pleasurable sex again.
Step 2: Perform Kegels
Strengthening the pelvic floor is something many ladies are familiar with and is what can firm up the vaginal walls fast.
Kegel exercises are especially useful following pregnancy, and extra effective when used with a special vagina-tightening gel such as Intivar can help to accelerate the tightening of the vagina.
Perform Kegel clenches on 5 days of the week and take 2 rest days so the muscles can recover and recuperate.
Try to perform 200 Kegels per day, holding each time for 5 seconds or more.
Remember, the rest days are also important so take care not to overdo it.
Step 3: Taking Vitamins
You may be surprised that supplements and vitamins restore vaginal elasticity but they do.
Natural herbs present in supplements help to increase female libido by balancing testosterone and estrogen levels in the female body. At the same time, these supplements help to restore vaginal health and rebuild tissue in the walls.
As menopause and childbirth can lead to a deficiency of hormones, the vaginal walls can lose their elasticity.
Fortunately, vitamins and herbal supplements can help to restore vaginal tightness by naturally helping your body to produce hormones that restore vaginal health.
An interesting side effect of such supplements is a healthy improvement in libido.
As all this happens naturally with vitamins and herbs, there is no need for a prescription.
What supplements currently lead the way for female health and libido?
HerSolution is the leading supplement used by women around the world to enjoy healthy sex, reduce stress and experience intense orgasms once again.
You can help vaginal health, improve your libido and energy levels naturally to have an enjoyable sex life again.
Erectile dysfunction is mostly a vascular disease. Shockwave therapy, as commonly applied by Thai urologists, causes total neovascularization of the vital organ. The result: super erections, even at age 75.
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